## Section 2: Methods of Science and Technology

Technology has had a huge impact on society and has helped make solving everyday problems easier. **Technology** is the application of science to solve problems. For example, the invention of cars, buses, and airplanes has made traveling easier and helped shape the modern world. New technology emerges as a result of **technological design**. This process is used to develop new technologies relying on evidence and reasoning.

Steps of the **technological design** process:

- Identify the problem
- Research the problem
- Generate solutions
- Select the best solution
- Create a model
- Test the model
- Refine and retest the model
- Share results

All technological designs have physical and social limitations or constraints due to natural laws, materials used, ease of use, cost, and safety.

Scientific work often requires **calculations** to solve formulas or to convert to units. This can be seen on a thermometer when you convert Celsius to Fahrenheit.

**Scientific** **notation** is a way of writing very large or very small numbers that use exponents.

Example: a = 10^{b}

a represents a decimal number

b represents an exponent, or power, of 10

Steps to convert to and from scientific notation:

- Move the decimal point left or right until the last nonzero digit
- Count how many places you move the decimal point
- If the decimal moved left,
**b**is positive; decimal moved right**b**is negative

Examples: 500 written with scientific notation is 5.0 x 10^{2 }

0.05 written with scientific notation is 5.0 x 10^{-2}