Section 2: Acids, Bases, and Salts
Both acids and bases are found in everyday aspects of life. You have probably heard the term acidic when referring to fruits like lemons and oranges. An acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution. The ability to produce these ions gives acids their distinct characteristics. All acids taste sour; acids are electrolytes, meaning they can conduct electricity in a solution; acids are corrosive, which means they can be so strong they can eat away metals; and acids react with indicators to produce a predictable color change. An indicator is a compound that changes colors to help determine whether something is an acid or a base. Litmus turns red when something is acidic and blue when something is acidic.Like acids, bases can be found around our homes in hand soaps, cleaning products, and other products. A base is a substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH–) in a solution and also accepts H+ from acids. All bases share certain characteristics. In an undissolved state, many bases are crystalline solids. In a solution, a base feels slippery. Bases also have a bitter taste. Strong bases are corrosive and can cause damage to the skin.
When an acidic and basic solution are combined, neutralization occurs, forming water and salt. Neutralization is a chemical reaction between an acid and a base that takes place in a water solution. A salt is a compound formed when negative ions of an acid combine with positive ions from a base. (acid + base = salt + water)